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  1. #1

    DSM-IV-TR Psychotic Disorders

    Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

    • Schizophrenia: Catatonic | Disorganized | Paranoid | Residual | Undifferentiated
    • Schizophreniform Disorder
    • Schizoaffective Disorder
    • Delusional Disorder
    • Brief Psychotic Disorder
    • Shared Psychotic Disorder
    • Psychotic Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition with: Delusions | Hallucinations
    • Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder
    • Psychotic Disorder NOS (298.9)

  2. #2

    Schizophrenia

    Diagnostic criteria for Schizophrenia

    A. Characteristic symptoms: Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated):

    (1) delusions
    (2) hallucinations
    (3) disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)
    (4) grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
    (5) negative symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia, or avolition

    Note: Only one Criterion A symptom is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person's behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other.

    B. Social/occupational dysfunction: For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood or adolescence, failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational achievement).

    C. Duration: Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. This 6-month period must include at least 1 month of symptoms (or less if successfully treated) that meet Criterion A (i.e., active-phase symptoms) and may include periods of prodromal or residual symptoms. During these prodromal or residual periods, the signs of the disturbance may be manifested by only negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A present in an attenuated form (e.g., odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences).

    D. Schizoaffective and Mood Disorder exclusion: Schizoaffective Disorder and Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features have been ruled out because either (1) no Major Depressive, Manic, or Mixed Episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms; or (2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the active and residual periods.

    E. Substance/general medical condition exclusion: The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

    F. Relationship to a Pervasive Developmental Disorder: If there is a history of Autistic Disorder or another Pervasive Developmental Disorder, the additional diagnosis of Schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present for at least a month (or less if successfully treated).

    Classification of longitudinal course (can be applied only after at least 1 year has elapsed since the initial onset of active-phase symptoms):

    Episodic With Interepisode Residual Symptoms (episodes are defined by the reemergence of prominent psychotic symptoms); also specify if: With Prominent Negative Symptoms

    Episodic With No Interepisode Residual Symptoms

    Continuous (prominent psychotic symptoms are present throughout the period of observation); also specify if: With Prominent Negative Symptoms

    Single Episode In Partial Remission; also specify if: With Prominent Negative Symptoms

    Single Episode In Full Remission

    Other or Unspecified Pattern

  3. #3

    Schizophreniform Disorder

    Schizophreniform Disorder

    A. Criteria A, D, and E of Schizophrenia are met.

    B. An episode of the disorder (including prodromal, active, and residual phases) lasts at least 1 month but less than 6 months. (When the diagnosis must be made without waiting for recovery, it should be qualified as "Provisional.")
    Specify if:
    Without Good Prognostic Features
    With Good Prognostic Features: as evidenced by two (or more) of the following:

    (1) onset of prominent psychotic symptoms within 4 weeks of the first noticeable change in usual behavior or functioning
    (2) confusion or perplexity at the height of the psychotic episode
    (3) good premorbid social and occupational functioning
    (4) absence of blunted or flat affect

  4. #4

    Schizoaffective Disorder

    Schizoaffective Disorder

    A. An uninterrupted period of illness during which, at some time, there is either a Major Depressive Episode, a Manic Episode, or a Mixed Episode concurrent with symptoms that meet Criterion A for Schizophrenia.
    Note: The Major Depressive Episode must include Criterion A1: depressed mood.

    B. During the same period of illness, there have been delusions or hallucinations for at least 2 weeks in the absence of prominent mood symptoms.

    C. Symptoms that meet criteria for a mood episode are present for a substantial portion of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness.

    D. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.
    Specify type:
    Bipolar Type: if the disturbance includes a Manic or a Mixed Episode (or a Manic or a Mixed Episode and Major Depressive Episodes)
    Depressive Type: if the disturbance only includes Major Depressive Episodes

  5. #5

    Delusional Disorder

    Delusional Disorder

    A. Nonbizarre delusions (i.e., involving situations that occur in real life, such as being followed, poisoned, infected, loved at a distance, or deceived by spouse or lover, or having a disease) of at least 1 month's duration.

    B. Criterion A for Schizophrenia has never been met. Note: Tactile and olfactory hallucinations may be present in Delusional Disorder if they are related to the delusional theme.

    C. Apart from the impact of the delusion(s) or its ramifications, functioning is not markedly impaired and behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre.

    D. If mood episodes have occurred concurrently with delusions, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the delusional periods.

    E. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.
    Specify type (the following types are assigned based on the predominant delusional theme):
    Erotomanic Type: delusions that another person, usually of higher status, is in love with the individual
    Grandiose Type: delusions of inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person
    Jealous Type: delusions that the individual's sexual partner is unfaithful
    Persecutory Type: delusions that the person (or someone to whom the person is close) is being malevolently treated in some way
    Somatic Type: delusions that the person has some physical defect or general medical condition
    Mixed Type: delusions characteristic of more than one of the above types but no one theme predominates
    Unspecified Type

  6. #6

    Brief Psychotic Disorder

    Brief Psychotic Disorder

    A. Presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms:

    (1) delusions
    (2) hallucinations
    (3) disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)
    (4) grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Note: Do not include a symptom if it is a culturally sanctioned response pattern.

    B. Duration of an episode of the disturbance is at least 1 day but less than 1 month, with eventual full return to premorbid level of functioning.

    C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, Schizoaffective Disorder, or Schizophrenia and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.
    Specify if:
    With Marked Stressor(s) (brief reactive psychosis): if symptoms occur shortly after and apparently in response to events that, singly or together, would be markedly stressful to almost anyone in similar circumstances in the person's culture
    Without Marked Stressor(s): if psychotic symptoms do not occur shortly after, or are not apparently in response to events that, singly or together, would be markedly stressful to almost anyone in similar circumstances in the person's culture
    With Postpartum Onset: if onset within 4 weeks postpartum

  7. #7

    Shared Psychotic Disorder

    Shared Psychotic Disorder

    A. A delusion develops in an individual in the context of a close relationship with another person(s), who has an already-established delusion.

    B. The delusion is similar in content to that of the person who already has the established delusion.

    C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another Psychotic Disorder (e.g., Schizophrenia) or a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

  8. #8

    Psychotic Disorder Due to a Medical Condition

    Psychotic Disorder Due to a Medical Condition

    A. Prominent hallucinations or delusions.

    B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is the direct physiological consequence of a general medical condition.

    C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

    D. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a Delirium.

    Code based on predominant symptom:
    .81 With Delusions: if delusions are the predominant symptom
    .82 With Hallucinations: if hallucinations are the predominant symptom

  9. #9

    Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder

    Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder

    A. Prominent hallucinations or delusions. Note: Do not include hallucinations if the person has insight that they are substance induced.

    B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of either (1) or (2):
    (1) the symptoms in Criterion A developed during, or within a month of, Substance Intoxication or Withdrawal
    (2) medication use is etiologically related to the disturbance

    C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by a Psychotic Disorder that is not substance induced. Evidence that the symptoms are better accounted for by a Psychotic Disorder that is not substance induced might include the following: the symptoms precede the onset of the substance use (or medication use); the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time (e.g., about a month) after the cessation of acute withdrawal or severe intoxication, or are substantially in excess of what would be expected given the type or amount of the substance used or the duration of use; or there is other evidence that suggests the existence of an independent non-substance-induced Psychotic Disorder (e.g., a history of recurrent non-substance-related episodes).

    D. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium. Note: This diagnosis should be made instead of a diagnosis of Substance Intoxication or Substance Withdrawal only when the symptoms are in excess of those usually associated with the intoxication or withdrawal syndrome and when the symptoms are sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention.

    Code [Specific Substance]-Induced Psychotic Disorder:
    (291.5 Alcohol, With Delusions; 291.3 Alcohol, With Hallucinations; 292.11 Amphetamine [or Amphetamine-Like Substance], With Delusions; 292.12 Amphetamine [or Amphetamine-Like Substance], With Hallucinations; 292.11 Cannabis, With Delusions; 292.12 Cannabis, With Hallucinations; 292.11 Cocaine, With Delusions; 292.12 Cocaine, With Hallucinations; 292.11 Hallucinogen, With Delusions; 292.12 Hallucinogen, With Hallucinations; 292.11 Inhalant, With Delusions; 292.12 Inhalant, With Hallucinations; 292.11 Opioid, With Delusions; 292.12 Opioid, With Hallucinations; 292.11 Phencyclidine [or Phencyclidine-Like Substance], With Delusions; 292.12 Phencyclidine [or Phencyclidine-Like Substance], With Hallucinations; 292.11 Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic, With Delusions; 292.12 Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic, With Hallucinations; 292.11 Other [or Unknown] Substance, With Delusions; 292.12 Other [or Unknown] Substance, With Hallucinations)

    Specify if:
    With Onset During Intoxication: if criteria are met for Intoxication with the substance and the symptoms develop during the intoxication syndrome With
    Onset During Withdrawal: if criteria are met for Withdrawal from the substance and the symptoms develop during, or shortly after, a withdrawal syndrome

  10. #10

    Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)

    Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)

    This designation abbreviated NOS can be used when the mental disorder appears to fall within the larger category but does not meet the criteria of any specific disorder within that category.

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