Symptoms of different types of headaches:

Migraine

Affects 18% of women and 6% of men in the USA
Pulsing or throbbing pain
Sensitivity to light and noise
Nausea or vomiting
Often on one side of the head
Lasts four hours to three days

Tension headache

"Vise-like" pressure or ache around the head; no throbbing
Tightness in the neck
Occurs in forehead, temples or back of the head and neck
Lasts 30 minutes to seven days

Cluster headache

Affects less than 1% of population mostly men
Also called suicide headache
Piercing pain on one side
Often accompanied by eye pain or watering, runny nose
Lasts 30 to 45 minutes and recurs in clusters in the same day
Can go on for weeks or months, then stop for months or years

Sinus headache

Pressure around the nose and cheeks and under the eyes
Usually accompanied by a fever and infection or allergies

Rebound headache

Result of overmedicating initial headache(s)

Organic headache

Rare, caused by brain tumor, aneurysm, hematoma, infection, hemorrhage or meningitis
Symptoms come on suddenly, including pain, lack of balance and behavioral changes

Source: The National Headache Foundation