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    Tourette syndrome and other neurodevelopmental disorders: a comprehensive review

    Tourette syndrome and other neurodevelopmental disorders: a comprehensive review
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
    Elena Cravedi, Emmanuelle Deniau, Marianna Giannitelli, Jean Xavier, Andreas Hartmann, and David Cohen
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, (2017) 11:59
    Tourette syndrome and other neurodevelopmental disorders: a comprehensive review
    Published: 4 December 2017

    Abstract
    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex developmental neuropsychiatric condition in which motor manifestations are often accompanied by comorbid conditions that impact the patient’s quality of life. In the DSM-5, TS belongs to the “neurodevelopmental disorders” group, together with other neurodevelopmental conditions, frequently co-occurring. In this study, we searched the PubMed database using a combination of keywords associating TS and all neurodevelopmental diagnoses. From 1009 original reports, we identified 36 studies addressing TS and neurodevelopmental comorbidities. The available evidence suggests the following: (1) neurodevelopmental comorbidities in TS are the rule, rather than the exception; (2) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent; (3) there is a continuum from a simple (TS + ADHD or/and learning disorder) to a more complex phenotype (TS + autism spectrum disorder). We conclude that a prompt diagnosis and a detailed description of TS comorbidities are necessary not only to understand the aetiological basis of neurodevelopmental disorders but also to address specific rehabilitative and therapeutic approaches.


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