Karen Spärck JonesFBA (26 August 1935 – 4 April 2007) was a pioneering British computer scientist responsible for the concept of inverse document frequency, a technology that underlies most modern search engines. In 2019, The New York Times published her belated obituary in its series Overlooked, calling her "a pioneer of computer science for work combining statistics and linguistics, and an advocate for women in the field."
One of the simplest yet most satisfying soups there is.
French onion soup is probably the most dramatic example of how time is the magic ingredient in cooking, transforming humble foods into a final dish that is far, far more than the sum of its parts.
With French onion soup, the lengthy cooking time has two phases: Caramelizing the onions slowly and deliberately, and then simmering the broth for a long time with the caramelized onions. Skimping on either side will yield something a little less than the French onion soup of your dreams, but fortunately most of the time is hands-off. You can even do the simmer in a low oven (250°F) or in a slow cooker.
On November 4, 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sizedplanets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarf stars within the Milky Way galaxy. Eleven billion of these estimated planets may be orbiting Sun-like stars. The nearest such planet was then as close as 12 light-years away but is now estimated slightly above four light-years away.
They always have. I suspect it's partly because prisons are privately/commercially run in the US and partly the whole "look tough on crime" thing. What other reason could there be for ridiclous sentences like 300-400 years? As is anyone will ever complete that sentence.
Driving kills as many Americans each year as guns do. Experts say that’s preventable.
A pedestrian has a 10 percent chance of dying when hit by a car at 23 miles per hour, a 25 percent chance at 32 mph, and a 75 percent chance at 50 mph.
One type of roadway that’s especially dangerous is...a “stroad”: places that try to be both a street, with access to shopping and leisure, and a road, where drivers move from place to place at high speeds, but do neither well.
Stroads are pervasive throughout America. Think of the wide arterial roads, lined with strip malls and big-box stores, that dominate the country. These environments combine 30- or 40-plus mph speeds with frequent turns, stopping points, and shared traffic with pedestrians and bikes, which creates many opportunities for crashes...
“If you narrowed the lanes and made the speeds lower, it would become way more safe just overnight, immediately. But no city, no state is really allowed to do that.” Roads have to adhere to the rulebook that has dictated bad, speed-first design for decades, or risk losing federal transportation aid.
Reward processing is a fundamental human activity. The basal ganglia are recognized for their role in reward processes; however, specific roles of the different nuclei (e.g., nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen and globus pallidus) remain unclear. Using quantitative meta-analyses we assessed...
Reward processing is a fundamental human activity. The basal ganglia are recognized for their role in reward processes; however, specific roles of the different nuclei (e.g., nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen and globus pallidus) remain unclear. Using quantitative meta-analyses we assessed whole-brain and basal ganglia specific contributions to money, erotic, and food reward processing. We analyzed data from 190 fMRI studies which reported stereotaxic coordinates of whole-brain, within-group results from healthy adult participants.
Results showed concordance in overlapping and distinct cortical and sub-cortical brain regions as a function of reward type. Common to all reward types was concordance in basal ganglia nuclei, with distinct differences in hemispheric dominance and spatial extent in response to the different reward types. Food reward processing favored the right hemisphere; erotic rewards favored the right lateral globus pallidus and left caudate body. Money rewards engaged the basal ganglia bilaterally including its most anterior part, nucleus accumbens.
We conclude by proposing a model of common reward processing in the basal ganglia and separate models for money, erotic, and food rewards.
Radars are rarely used alone in a marine setting. A modern trend is the integration of radar with other navigation displays on a single screen, as it becomes quite distracting to look at several different screens. Therefore, displays can often overlay an electronic GPSnavigation chart of ship position, and a sonar display, on the radar display. This provides a combined view of surroundings, to maneuver the ship.
A common drug, lithium, could hold the key to long life, in flies at least, according to research.
Fruit flies lived 16% longer than average when given low doses of lithium...
"We found low doses not only prolong life but also shield the body from stress and block fat production for flies on a high sugar diet."
"This research has the potential to not only help create a healthier older generation, but also provide significant insights into how we could potentially treat or even prevent conditions of ageing like Parkinson's."
Lithium salts have been used in the past as a health tonic and to heal conditions such as gout and migraines.
In modern medicine, lithium is used to encourage mood stability in bipolar disorder and is also being considered for the treatment of memory impairment.
Hash browns first started appearing on breakfast menus in New York City in the 1890s...
Originally, the full name of the dish was "hashed brown potatoes" (or "hashed browned potatoes"), of which the first known mention is by American food author Maria Parloa (1843–1909) in her 1887 Kitchen Companion, where she describes the dish of "hashed and browned potatoes" as a fried mixture of cold boiled potatoes which is folded "like an omelet" before serving.