More threads by David Baxter PhD

David Baxter PhD

Late Founder
Omega-3/ Omega-6 (Bipolar World)

Omega-3 has been a "buzz" word around bipolar sites for the several years (see

According to Dr Joseph Mercola of the Optimal Wellness Center, Omega-3 and Omega-6 are both essential for good health, but we eat too much of the Omega-6 fats. "The ideal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fats is 1:1.", according to Mercola. "Our ancestors evolved over millions of years on this ratio. Today, though, our ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 averages from 20:1 to 50:1! That spells danger for you." Foods rich in Omega 3 are "olive oil, avocados, dark green leafy vegetables, salmon, flax seed oil, walnut oil, nuts, ocean fish, ostrich meat, grass fed beef, bison, and venison", says Mercola. He goes further to say that the Omega-6 oils are too prevalent in our diet and should be limited or avoided. These include corn, soy, canola, safflower, and sunflower oil.

Here is an additional link that lists foods high in Omega-3 and Omega-6.

David Baxter PhD

Late Founder
Udo Erasmus on Essential Fatty Acid (EFA) deficiency

Udo's Oil
Udo Erasmus, the author of Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill (Alive Books, 1993), is probably the name most closely associated with the dawn of our understanding of the importance of EFAs in physical and mental health. What follows is from Udo Erasmus' website at Home - Udo Erasmus:

Every cell, tissue, gland, and organ will fail to function if sufficient levels of omega-6 EFA's are not present in the diet. In the past, such deficiency was rare, but since the advent of low-fat diets, lack of omega-6's has become much more common. Omega 6 deficiency causes the following symptoms:

1. Skin, hair, and nails become defective, leading to ...
o eczema-like skin eruptions
o dry skin and hair; hair loss
o water loss through the skin (dehydration) with attendant thirst
o impaired nail growth

2. Organs fall apart, resulting in ...
o fatty infiltration of the liver; kidney malfunction; dry eyes

3. The brain falls apart, bringing about many changes, including ...
o poor vision; decreased learning ability; lower intelligence
o mood changes; depression; poor handling of stressful situations
o problem behavior; attention deficit; hyperactivity; dyslexia
o motor incoordination; and poor physical performance

4. Glands dry up, failing to make their vital hormones and secretions

5. The immune system falls apart, producing ...
o increased susceptibility to infections; impaired healing of wounds

6. The reproductive system falls apart, and we get ...
o male sterility; and female miscarriage

7. Our joints fall apart, manifesting as ...
o arthritis-like conditions

8. The cardiovascular system falls apart, resulting in ...
o heart beat abnormalities that can lead to cardiac arrest
o sometimes, increased cholesterol

9. Digestion falls apart, leading to ...
o poor digestion of foods; inflammation; leaky gut; food sensitivities
o allergies

10. Growth becomes retarded.

The above list shows some of the serious health concerns from lack of essential omega 6 fats. They are an absolute necessity for life. Adequate Omega 6 intake reverses all of these deficiency symptoms.

Omega 3 deficiency causes:
o growth retardation;
o vision and learning problems; behavioral changes; mental deterioration;
o weakness; motor incoordination;
o tingling sensations in arms and legs.

Researchers agree on these omega 3 deficiency symptoms; but omega 3s often reverse the following conditions, which should therefore be added to the list above:
o high triglycerides; high blood pressure; sticky platelets;
o sub-optimal skin condition; inflammatory skin diseases;
o water retention (edema); inflammation in any tissue in the body;
o auto-immune conditions;
o low metabolic rate; weight gain.

EFA deficiency affects cells and tissues throughout the entire body. No part of the body can function without them. EFA supplementation reverses all symptoms of EFA deficiency.

David Baxter PhD

Late Founder
More information on Omega-3, Omega-6, and Omega-9 EFAs

More information on Omega-3, Omega-6, and Omega-9 EFAs
In addition to the books and websites noted above, information about these EFAs is available from:
  • Holman RT, The slow discovery of the importance of omega 3 essential fatty acids in human health. J Nutr 1998 Feb;128(2 Suppl):427S-433S. Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin 55912, USA.
    Campbell, Neil A., Biology, Fourth Edition. The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co. Inc., 1996.
    Wardlaw, Gordon M., Perspectives in Nutrition, Fourth Edition. WCB/McGraw-Hill, 1999.
    Schmidt, Michael A., Smart Fats: How Dietary Fats and Oils Affect Mental, Physical, and Emotional Intelligence. Frog, Ltd., 1997.
    Hui, Y.H. (editor), Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Fifth Edition, Volume 1. Edible Oil and Fat Products: General Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
    Hui, Y.H. (editor), Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Fifth Edition, Volume 2. Edible Oil and Fat Products: Oils and Oil Seeds. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
    Hui, Y.H. (editor), Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Fifth Edition, Volume 3. Edible Oil and Fat Products: Products and Application Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
    Hui, Y.H. (editor), Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Fifth Edition, Volume 4. Edible Oil and Fat Products: Processing Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
    Campbell EM, et al., Premenstrual symptoms in general practice patients. Prevalence and treatment. J Reprod Med 1997 Oct;42(10):637-46. Hunter Center for Health Advancement, Wallsend, NSW, Australia.
    Kruger MC, Horrobin DF., Calcium metabolism, osteoporosis and essential fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res 1997 Sep;36(2-3):131-51. Department of Physiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Mayser P, et al., Omega-3 fatty acid-based lipid infusion in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998 Apr;38(4):539-47. Department of Dermatology and Andrology, Justus Leibig University Giessen, Germany.
    Grattan C, et al., Essential-fatty-acid metabolites in plasma phospholipids in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris, acne vulgaris, and psoriasis. Clin Exp Dermatol 1990 May;15(3):174-6. Department of Dermatology, General Hospital, Birmingham, UK.
    Heller A, et al., Lipid mediators in inflammatory disorders. Drugs 1998 Apr;55(4):487-96. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Dresden, Germany.
    Eynard AR., Does chronic essential fatty acid deficiency constitute a pro-tumorigenic condition?. Med Hypotheses 1997 Jan;48(1):55-62. Institute of Cellular Biology, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Cordoba, Argentina.
    Fan YY, Chapkin R.S., Importance of dietary gamma-linolenic acid in human health and nutrition. J Nutr 1998;128(9):1411-4. Faculty of Nutrition, Molecular Cell Biology Group, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 77843-2471, USA.
    Edwards R, et al., Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and in red blood cell membranes of depressed patients. J Affect Disord 1998 Mar;48(2-3):149-55.
    Grimsgaard S, et al., Plasma saturated and linoleic fatty acids are independently associated with blood pressure. Hypertension 1999 Sep;34(3):478-83. Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Norway.
    Marcovina SM, et al., Fish intake, independent of apo(a) size, accounts for lower plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in Bantu fishermen of Tanzania: The Lugalawa Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999 May;19(5):1250-6. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    German JB., Food processing and lipid oxidation. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;459:23-50. Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.
    Hardy SC, Kleinman R.E., Fat and cholesterol in the diet of young children: implications for growth, development, and long-term health. J Pediatr 1994 Nov;125(5 PT 2):S69-77. Combined Program in Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02113.
    Fernandes G, Troyer DA, Jolly Ca., The effects of dietary lipids on gene expression and apoptosis. Proc Nutr Soc 1998 Nov;57(4):543-50. Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 78284-7874, USA.
    Harbige L.S., Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in immunity and autoimmune disease. Proc Nutr Soc 1998 Nov;57(4):555-62. School of Chemical Life Sciences, University of Greenwich, London, UK.
    Redgrave T.G., Lipids in Enteral Nutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1999 Mar;2(2):147-52. University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth, Australia.
    Clandinin, M.T., Brain development and assessing the supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 1999 Feb;34(2):131-7. Nutrition and Metabolism Research Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Melanson KJ, et al., Blood glucose patterns and appetite in time-blinded humans: carbohydrate versus fat. Am J Physiol 1999 Aug;277(2 Pt 2):R337-45. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Stan S, et al., Modulation of apo A-IV transcript levels and synthesis by n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids in CACO-2 cells. J Cell Biochem 1999 Oct 1;75(1):73-81. Department of Nutrition, Biochemistry and Pathology Research Centre, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal University, Quebec, Canada.
    Matthys LA, Widmaier E.P., Fatty acids inhibit adrenocorticotropin-induced adrenal steroidogenesis. Horm Metab Res 1998 Feb;30(2):80-3. University of Tennessee School of Medicine, Memphis, USA.
    Sircar S, Kansra U, Choice of cooking oils--myths and realities. J Indian Med Assoc 1998 Oct;96(10):304-7. Department of Medicine, Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi.
    Horrobin DF, Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):367S-72S. Laxdale Research, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom.
    Haggans et al., Effect of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen matabolites in postmenopausal women. Nutr Cancer 1999;33(2):188-95. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108, USA.
    Harvard School of Public Health Press Release, June 23, 1999. Harvard review of evidence verifies that eating trans fats increases risk of heart disease. Boston, MA, USA.
    Harvard School of Public Health Pres Release, November 18, 1997. Study shows how different types of dietary fat affect coronary heart disease risk. Boston, MA, USA.
    Ascherio A, Willett WC, Health effects of Trans Fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Oct;66(4 Suppl):1006S-1010S. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Bloom, M., et al., Insights from NMR on the Functional Role of Polyunsaturated Lipids in the Brain, 1999. Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1, Canada.
    Simopoulos, A.P., Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Sept;70(3 Suppl):560S-569S. Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, Washington DC 20009.
    Kankaanpaa, P., et al., Dietary fatty acids and allergy. Ann Med 1999 Aug;31(4):282-7. Department of Boichemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Finland.
    Allman Ma., Pena M.M., and Pang D., Supplementation with flaxseed oil versus sunflowerseed oil in healthy young men consuming a low fat diet: effects on platelet composition and function. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995 Mar;49(3):169-78. Department of Biochemistry, University of Sydney, Australia.
    Gerhardt A.L., Gallo N.B., Full-fat rice bran and oat bran similarly reduce hypercholesterolemia in humans. J Nutr 1998 May;128(5):865-9. Department of Medicine, University of California, Davis Medical Center and Sutter Heart Institute, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA.
    Fernandez E., et al., Fish consumption and cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Jul;70(1):85-90. Institut Universitari de Salut Publica de Catalunya, L'Hospitalet (Barcelona), Catalonia, Spain.
    Park Y., et al., High-fat dairy product consumption increases delta 9c,11t-18:2 (rumenic acid) and total lipid concentrations of human milk. Lipids 1999 Jun;34(6):543-9. Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6376, USA.
    Horrobin D.F., Bennett C.N., Depression and bipolar disorder: relationships to impaired fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism and to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, immunological abnormalities, cancer, ageing and osteoporosis - Possible candidate genes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1999 Apr;60(4):217-34. Laxdale Research, Stirling, UK.
    Yehuda S., Rabinovitz S., Mostofsky D.I., Essential fatty acids are mediators of brain biochemistry and cognitive functions. J Neurosci Res 1999 Jun 15;56(6):565-70. Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    Hu F.B., et al., Dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease among women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999 May;69(5):890-7. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Mitchell Ea., et al., Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children. Clin Pediatr(Phila) 1987 Aug;26(8):406-11.
    Tatler journal, January 2000 issue, Volume 295 Number 1.
    Clarke SD, Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a mechanism to improve energy balance and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr 2000 Mar;83 Suppl 1:S59-66. Graduate Program of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas at Austin 78712, USA[/list:u]
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